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Tree Species

DCLA Native Tree and Shrub Sale
Plant Descriptions and Ideal environments

Hints for success: Plant shrubs and trees so the root collar rests just above the soil, similar to how it was grown as a seedling. Fill the hole with topsoil, tamp as you proceed. Water after installation. Suppress weed growth by mulching within a yard of seedling. Water often throughout 1st year.

This year we have available:


High Bush Cranberry Viburnum trilobum
Recommended for shoreline planting. 6-12’ tall, pretty white blossoms in late spring, clusters of red berries in summer, and plenty of fall colour. Can be found in wet areas along shorelines, swamps and forest edges. In a garden setting, moist, well-drained soil is best. Prefers sun, to partial shade. For wildlife, this is an important survival food as winter progresses.

Grey Dogwood
A medium-sized shrub that is highly adaptive to various soil, light and moisture conditions. Tolerant of drought and wet conditions alike. Has aesthetic interest all year round. Shrub will grow into thickets creating shelter for birds and small mammals. Is an excellent plant for erosion control and filling in naturalized areas. Deer resistant. Attracts pollinators. Birds are drawn in by the brilliant, white berries. Prefers medium, well-drained soil in full sun.
Height : 10-15 feet Spread : 10-15 feet
Light : Full sun to part shade Water : Dry to moist
Soil : Sand, loam Zone : 4-8
Leaves : Medium green to grey-green turning a mixture of green, purple and red in fall
Stem : Very thin stems are a dark purplish-red, bark changes from reddish-brown stems to grey branches with age
Small, white flowers are on display in late May to early June
Fruit : White, bluish-white berry clusters appear on red stalks in Aug-September
Habit : Upright, multi-stemmed shrub when young. As it gets older form spreading mounds

Can handle excessive moisture. Seeds are eaten by ducks and numerous other water birds. Fragrant honey smelling flowers attract pollinators. Provides nesting habitat for songbirds and is deer resistant.
Height : 3-10 feet
Spread : 3-6 feet
Light : Full sun to part shade
Water : Medium to wet
Soil : Sand, loam, clay
Leaves : Glossy bright to dark green foliage that turns golden yellow in the fall
Stem : Gray-brown, not showy
Flower : Very fragrant, tiny creamy/white flowers. Blooms in July-August
Fruit : Flower heads turn to brown seed clusters/nutlets in the fall that persist through the winter
Habit : Rounded multi-stemmed shrub

Sandbar Willow
An excellent shoreline plant as it is commonly found growing in damp, sandy conditions. Narrow, long leaves. Will tolerate standing water. Great for erosion control and naturalization.
Height : 7-10 feet Spread : 5-8 feet
Light : Full sun Water : Medium to Wet
Soil : Sand, loam Zone : 2-8
Habit : Multi-stemmed shrub with an irregular, somewhat rounded form


Burr Oak
A sturdy, robust tree with a highly adaptive nature. A deep taproot allows it withstand drought conditions but also has the ability to tolerate seasonal flooding. Displays unique, corky branches and a has deeply furrowed bark in maturity. The bur oak is frequently found growing naturally in prairie habitats where grassland fires occur, thankfully the corky bark protects the branches from sustaining life threatening burns. A wonderful shade tree with a majestic form where it has a tendency to spread out in open areas. Prefers medium, well-drained soil in full sun. Is tolerant of dry and clay soils. Produces large acorns that are enjoyed by birds and small mammals. Supports many species of butterflies and moths.
Height : 60-80 feet Spread : 60-80 feet
Light : Full sun to part shade Water : Dry to wet
Soil : Loam, clay Zone : 3-9
Growth Rate : Slow to medium

Red Maple
An excellent shade tree. Often thought to have red leaves all year but it has acquired its name for the magnificent shades of red it displays in the fall. So, please be aware that the foliage is green throughout the growing season. Has lobed leaves which are a characteristic feature of those in the maple family. Will do best in moist soils but has moderate levels of drought tolerance. A great choice for riparian areas.
Height : 15-40 feet Spread : 35-75 feet
Light : Full sun to part shade Water : Medium to wet
Soil : Sand, loam Zone : 3-9
Growth Rate : Medium – Fast
Key Pollinators : Mining bees, small sweat bees, mason bees, cellophane bees
Pollinator Food Source: Nectar (male flowers)
Larval Host Plant : Various species

Bitternut Hickory  Carya Cordiformis
The bitternut hickory is a member of the group of trees called 'pecan hickories'.  It produces round and bitter inedicble nuts that are about 2 - 3.5 centimetres long.  It's dark green leaves are 15 - 25 centimetres long and are made up of 7 to 11 long, pointed leaflets on a central stalk.  It grows best on low, moist ground or in rich soil in higher ground.  It grows well even in shade, so is usually found in groups of other trees,


Evergreen/softwood Trees

Norway Spruce
The Norway spruce (Picea abies) can reach 60 feet tall. Young trees have thin bark that thickens to a greyish-brown scale-like texture as it matures. The 4 to 6-inch cones hang gracefully from the tree. Plant this tree in the spring or early fall before the first frost (hardiness zones 2 through 7) It wants full to partial sun and moist, well drained, acidic soil. Enjoy the Norway spruce's fast growth rate of 3 feet per year. The Norway spruce's lifespan can reach hundreds of years.

Tamarack Larix Laricina
The tamarack tree is found throughout Ontario and reaches about 20 metres. It is conical shaped and very dramatic in the fall.  Its needles are about 2 - 3 centimetres long and grow in tufts.  The needles turn yellow in the late fall before some of them fall off. The bark is smooth and gray when the tree is young and then becomes reddish brown and scaly.  The tree doesn't produce seeds until it is 10 years old.

White Birch
A medium to large tree with an upright, oval crown. Lush green leaves turn attractive shades of yellow and gold in the fall. In maturity, it has distinctive white bark that characteristically peels and curls. The sapling bark is a cherry brown coloration and is speckled with lenticils. Please note, it can take years to transition from the youthful brown bark to the characteristic white bark. Naturally, it prefers moist, cool areas but it can tolerate drier locations if properly mulched and cared for.
Height : 50-75 feet Spread : 20-50 feet
Light : Full sun to shade Water : Dry-medium to moist
Soil : Sand, loam Zone : 2-6
Growth Rate : Medium to fast
Larval Host Plant : Tiger swallowtail butterfly, morning cloak, commas and other butterfly species

White Cedar Thuja occidentalis
Small, hardy, slow growing tree that can live up to 200 years! Likes cool, moist, nutrient rich sites. Valuable habitat for wildlife, especially deer during severe winters. Called arborvitae by Jacques Cartier as he learned from the Indigenous people how to treat scurvy with the foliage! Just in case…

"I think that I shall never see
A poem as lovely as a tree."
From “Trees” by Joyce Kilmer

2022/23 Species (not offered this year)
Red Oak Quercus rubra
Height 60-80’, can tolerate a variety of moisture levels and soil types. Will tolerate shade when young, prefers full sun. Acorns an important food source for birds and forest mammals.

Silver Maple Acer Saccharum
The silver maple is a large tree that can grow to be 35 metres tall with a trunk that's more than 100 centimetres in diameter.  The silver maple is very similar to the red maple - except that its leves turn pale yellow or brown, not red, in the fall.  Bark on the silver maple is smooth and gray when the tree is young and then becomes dark reddish brown and breaks into strips that peel off and at either end and make the trunk look 'shaggy'.  

Hemlock Tsuga Canadensis
Its shape is conical with a wide trunk that tapers into a thin top.  Skinny flexible branches grow straight out from the trunk and then droop at the ends.  The eastern hemlock's bark is scaly when the tree is young and cracks deeply as the tree gets older.  The cones of the eastern hemlock are oval shaped and are 12 to 20 millimetres in length.  Seeds fall out of the cones in late fall and winter.  It prefers moist and cool areas and trows in a range of different soil types.